Industrial Control Systems Testbed Survey

About this project

This page aims to collect and share the current state of the art Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Testbed and Datasets developed for security research. We think that this collection can help the ICS security community see the current research trend worldwide and find useful information to support future studies.

We collect three types of testbeds:

We also collected the various datasets in the literature. Since collecting or retrieving an ICS testbed is a difficult task, we hope this page can help researchers identify the most suited for research.

Interactive Map


In this map we reported the physical and hybrid testbed presented in literature, by considering their physical location.

Instead, we exclude fully simulated testbed since they do not have a precise location.


Testbeds

Name Institution Scope Category License Reference
Aghamolki et al. University of South Florida Power Grid Hybrid Open Description Aghamolki, H. G., et al. (2015, October). A hardware-in-the-loop SCADA testbed. In 2015 North American Power Symposium (NAPS) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Ahmed et al. University of New Orleans 3 Different ICS Physical Open Description Ahmed, I., et al. (2016, December). A SCADA system testbed for cybersecurity and forensic research and pedagogy. In Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Industrial Control System Security Workshop (pp. 1-9).
Alves et al. University of Alabama in Huntsville Gas Pipeline Hybrid Open Description Alves, T., et al. (2016, December). Virtualization of industrial control system testbeds for cybersecurity. In Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Industrial Control System Security Workshop (pp. 10-14).
Blazek et al. Brno University of Technology Power Grid Physical Open Description Blazek, P., et al. (2019). Development of cyber-physical security testbed based on IEC 61850 architecture. Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika, 25(5), 82-87.
BU-Testbed Binghamton University Power Plant Physical Open Description Korkmaz, E., et al. (2016, June). Industrial control systems security testbed. In 11th Annual Symposium on Information Assurance.
CockpitCI Extention University of Coimbra Power Grid Hybrid Open Description Cruz, T., et al. (2016). A cybersecurity detection framework for supervisory control and data acquisition systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 12(6), 2236-2246.
CyberCity Testbed SANS Institute City Hybrid Education Hink, R. C. B., et al. (2016, January). Characterization of cyberattacks aimed at integrated industrial control and enterprise systems: a case study. In 2016 IEEE 17th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE) (pp. 149-156). IEEE.
Davis et al. University of Illinois Power Grid Virtual Open Description Davis, C. M., et al. (2006). SCADA cyber security testbed development. In 2006 38th North American Power Symposium (pp. 483-488). IEEE.
DVCP Hamburg University of Technology Chemical Process Virtual Open-Source Krotofil, M., et al. (2015, August). Rocking the pocket book: Hacking chemical plants. In DefCon Conference, DEFCON.
EPIC (IPSC) Joint Research Centre, Ispra (JRC) General CPS Hybrid Open-Source Virtualization of industrial control system testbeds for cybersecurity,
EPIC (iTrust) Singapore University of Technology and Design Electric Power Physical Education Adepu, S., et al. (2018). Epic: An electric power testbed for research and training in cyber physical systems security. In Computer Security (pp. 37-52). Springer, Cham.
EPS-ICS Beijing University of Technology Generic ICS Hybrid NA Gao, H., et al. (2013). The design of ics testbed based on emulation, physical, and simulation (eps-ics testbed). In 2013 Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (pp. 420-423). IEEE.
Farooqui et al. National University of Sciences and Technology Generic CPS Virtual Open Description Farooqui, A. A., et al. (2014, October). Cyber security backdrop: A scada testbed. In 2014 IEEE Computers, Communications and IT Applications Conference (pp. 98-103). IEEE.
Gas Pipeline t. Mississippi State University Gas Pipeline Virtual NA Morris, T. H., et al. (2015). Industrial control system simulation and data logging for intrusion detection system research. 7th annual southeastern cyber security summit, 3-4.
Genge et al. Joint Research Centre, Ispra (JRC) Generic ICS Virtual Open Description Genge, B., et al. (2012). A cyber-physical experimentation environment for the security analysis of networked industrial control systems. Computers &; Electrical Engineering, 38(5), 1146-1161.
Giani et al. UC Berkeley, Carnegie Mellon Uni. \&; Vanderbilt Uni. Generic ICS Virtual Open Description Giani, A., et al. (2008). A testbed for secure and robust SCADA systems. ACM SIGBED Review, 5(2), 1-4.
Gillen et al. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Cooling System Hybrid Open Description Gillen, R. E., et al. (2020, August). Design and Implementation of Full-Scale Industrial Control System Test Bed for Assessing Cyber-Security Defenses. In 2020 IEEE 21st International Symposium on" A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks"(WoWMoM) (pp. 341-346). IEEE.
GRFICS Georgia Institute of Technology and Fortiphyd Logic Chemical Process Virtual Open-Source Formby, D., et al. (2018). Lowering the Barriers to Industrial Control System Security with {GRFICS}. In 2018 {USENIX} Workshop on Advances in Security Education ({ASE} 18).
HAI Testbed The Affiliated Institute of ETRI Power Plant Physical Open Description Shin, H. K., et al. (2019). Implementation of Programmable {CPS} Testbed for Anomaly Detection. In 12th {USENIX} Workshop on Cyber Security Experimentation and Test ({CSET} 19).
Hui Nuclear Queen's University Nuclear Plant Hybrid Open Description Hui, H., et al. (2019). ICS Interaction Testbed: A Platform for Cyber-Physical Security Research. In 6th International Symposium for ICS &; SCADA Cyber Security Research 2019 6 (pp. 89-96).
HYDRA University of Roma Tre Water Distribution Hybrid Open-Source Bernieri, G., et al. (2016). A testbed for integrated fault diagnosis and cyber security investigation. In 2016 International Conference on Control, Decision and Information Technologies (CoDIT) (pp. 454-459). IEEE.
Jarmakiewicz et al. Military University of Technology Power Grid Hybrid Open Description Morris, T. H., et al. (2015). Industrial control system simulation and data logging for intrusion detection system research. 7th annual southeastern cyber security summit, 3-4.
Jin et al. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Generic ICS Virtual Open Description Jin, D., et al. (2011, December). An event buffer flooding attack in DNP3 controlled SCADA systems. In Proceedings of the 2011 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC) (pp. 2614-2626). IEEE.
Kaouk et al. University of Grenoble Generic ICS Hybrid Open Description Kaouk, M., et al. (2018, October). A testbed for cybersecurity assessment of industrial and iot-based control systems.
Kim et al. National Security Research Institute 6 Different ICS Hybrid Education Kim, J., et al. (2019, May). Cyber-Physical Battlefield Platform for Large-Scale Cybersecurity Exercises. In 2019 11th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon) (Vol. 900, pp. 1-19). IEEE.
Koganti et l. University of Idaho Power Grid Virtual Open Description Koganti, V. S., et al. (2017, October). A virtual testbed for security management of industrial control systems. In 2017 12th International Conference on Malicious and Unwanted Software (MALWARE) (pp. 85-90). IEEE.
Koutsandria et al. Sapienza University of Rome Power Grid Hybrid Open Description Koutsandria, G., et al. (2015, October). A real-time testbed environment for cyber-physical security on the power grid. In Proceedings of the First ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems-Security and/or PrivaCy (pp. 67-78).
KYPO4INDUSTRY Masaryk University Linear Motor Hybrid Open Description Čeleda, P., et al. (2020, February). KYPO4INDUSTRY: A Testbed for Teaching Cybersecurity of Industrial Control Systems. In Proceedings of the 51st ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (pp. 1026-1032).
Lancaster's testbed Lancaster University Generic ICS Physical Collaboration Green, B., et al. (2017). Pains, gains and PLCs: ten lessons from building an industrial control systems testbed for security research. In 10th {USENIX} Workshop on Cyber Security Experimentation and Test ({CSET} 17).
Lee et al. Ajou University Power Plant Virtual Open Description Lee, S., et al. (2018). Design and implementation of cybersecurity testbed for industrial IoT systems. The Journal of Supercomputing, 74(9), 4506-4520.
LegoSCADA Universite Paris-Saclay Vehicular Hybrid Open-Source Rubio-Hernan, J., Rodolfo-Mejias, J., &; Garcia-Alfaro, J. (2016, September). Security of cyber-physical systems. In International Workshop on the Security of Industrial Control Systems and Cyber-Physical Systems (pp. 3-18). Springer, Cham.
LICSTER Hochschule Augsburg Generic ICS Physical Open-Source Sauer, F., et al. (2019). LICSTER--A Low-cost ICS Security Testbed for Education and Research. arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.00303.
Maynard SCADA Queen's University Generic ICS Virtual Open-Source Maynard, P., et al. (2018). An Open Framework for Deploying Experimental SCADA Testbed Networks. In 5th International Symposium for ICS &; SCADA Cyber Security Research 2018 5 (pp. 92-101).
Microgrid The Ohio State University Power Grid Hybrid Open Description Guo, F., et al. (2013). Design and development of a reconfigurable hybrid Microgrid testbed. In 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (pp. 1350-1356). IEEE.
MiniCPS Singapore University of Technology and Design Generic CPS Virtual Open-Source Antonioli, D., &; Tippenhauer, N. O. (2015). MiniCPS: A toolkit for security research on CPS networks. In Proceedings of the First ACM workshop on cyber-physical systems-security and/or privacy (pp. 91-100).
Mississipi Ethernet Mississippi State University 2 different ICS Physical Education Morris, T., et al. (2011). A testbed for SCADA control system cybersecurity research and pedagogy. In Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Workshop on Cyber Security and Information Intelligence Research (pp. 1-1).
Mississipi Serial Mississippi State University Industrial op.s Physical Education Morris, T., et al. (2011). A testbed for SCADA control system cybersecurity research and pedagogy. In Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Workshop on Cyber Security and Information Intelligence Research (pp. 1-1).
MSICST - 4 Different ICS Hybrid Open Description Xu, W., et al. (2019). MSICST: multiple-scenario industrial control system testbed for security research. CMC: Computers, Materials &; Continua, 60(2), 691-705.
NIST U.S. Department of Commerce 4 Different ICS Hybrid Collaboration Candell, R., et al. (2015). An industrial control system cybersecurity performance testbed. National Institute of Standards and Technology. NISTIR, 8089.
PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Generic CPS Hybrid Open Description Edgar, T., et al. (2011). Towards an experimental testbed facility for cyber-physical security research. In Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Workshop on Cyber Security and Information Intelligence Research (pp. 1-1).
PowerCyber Iowa State University Power Grid Physical Open Description Hahn, A., et al. (2010). Development of the PowerCyber SCADA security testbed. In Proceedings of the sixth annual workshop on cyber security and information intelligence research (pp. 1-4).
Queiroz et al. RMIT University Water Distribution Hybrid Open Description Queiroz, C., et al. (2009, October). Building a SCADA security testbed. In 2009 Third International Conference on Network and System Security (pp. 357-364). IEEE.
Reavers &; Morris Georgia Institute of Technology and Fortiphyd Logic Generic ICS Virtual Open Description Reaves, B., &; Morris, T. (2012). An open virtual testbed for industrial control system security research. International Journal of Information Security, 11(4), 215-229.
RICS-el Swedish Defence Research Agency Power Grid Virtual Open Description Almgren, M., et al. (2018, September). RICS-el: building a national testbed for research and training on SCADA security (short paper). In International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (pp. 219-225). Springer, Cham.
Sayegh et al. American University of Beirut Generic ICS Physical Open Description Sayegh, N., et al. (2013, June). Internal security attacks on SCADA systems. In 2013 Third International Conference on Communications and Information Technology (ICCIT) (pp. 22-27). IEEE.
SCADA-SST King Fahd University of Petroleum \&; Minerals 2 different ICS Virtual Open-Source Ghaleb, A., et al. (2016, December). SCADA-SST: a SCADA security testbed. In 2016 World Congress on Industrial Control Systems Security (WCICSS) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
SCADASim RMIT University Generic ICS Virtual Open-Source Queiroz, C., et al. (2011). SCADASim—A framework for building SCADA simulations. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2(4), 589-597.
SCADAVT RMIT University Water Distribution Virtual Open Description Almalawi, A., et al. (2013). SCADAVT-A framework for SCADA security testbed based on virtualization technology. In 38th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (pp. 639-646). IEEE.
SGTB Idaho National Laboratory Power Grid Physical NA Moreno-Garcia, I. M., et al. (2017). Development and application of a smart grid test bench. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162, 45-60.
Singhet et al. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing Power Grid Virtual Open Description Singh, P., et al. (2015, August). A testbed for SCADA cyber security and intrusion detection. In 2015 International Conference on Cyber Security of Smart Cities, Industrial Control System and Communications (SSIC) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
SNL Testbed Sandia National Laboratories Generic ICS Hybrid Open Description Urias, V., et al. (2012, October). Supervisory Command and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system cyber security analysis using a live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testbed. In MILCOM 2012-2012 IEEE Military Communications Conference (pp. 1-8). IEEE.
SWaT Singapore University of Technology and Design Water Treatment Physical Collaboration Mathur, A. P., &; Tippenhauer, N. O. (2016, April). SWaT: a water treatment testbed for research and training on ICS security. In 2016 International Workshop on Cyber-physical Systems for Smart Water Networks (CySWater) (pp. 31-36). IEEE.
TASSCS University of Arizona Power Grid Virtual Open Description Mallouhi, M., et al. (2011). A testbed for analyzing security of SCADA control systems (TASSCS). In ISGT 2011 (pp. 1-7). IEEE.
Teixeira et. al Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology, Sao Paulo Water Distribution Physical Open Description Teixeira, M. A., et al. (2018). SCADA system testbed for cybersecurity research using machine learning approach. Future Internet, 10(8), 76.
Turbo-Gas Power Plant Joint Research Centre, Ispra (JRC) Power Plant Physical Open Description Fovino, I. N., et al. (2010, May). An experimental platform for assessing SCADA vulnerabilities and countermeasures in power plants. In 3rd International Conference on Human System Interaction (pp. 679-686). IEEE.
VPST University of Illinois Power Grid Hybrid Open Description Bergman, D. C., et al. (2009). The Virtual Power System Testbed and Inter-Testbed Integration. In CSET.
VTET SKL-MEAC, Zhengzhou Chemical Process Virtual Open Description Xie, Y., et al. (2018). VTET: A Virtual Industrial Control System Testbed for Cyber Security Research. In 2018 Third International Conference on Security of Smart Cities, Industrial Control System and Communications (SSIC) (pp. 1-7). IEEE.
WADI Singapore University of Technology and Design Water Distribution Physical Collaboration Ahmed, C. M., et al. (2017). WADI: a water distribution testbed for research in the design of secure cyber physical systems. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Water Networks (pp. 25-28).
Wang et al. Tsinghua University Generic ICS Virtual Open Description Wang, C., et al. (2010). A simulation environment for SCADA security analysis and assessment. In 2010 International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (Vol. 1, pp. 342-347). IEEE.
Yang et al. Queen's University Belfast Power Grid Physical Open Description Yang, Y., et al. (2014). Multiattribute SCADA-specific intrusion detection system for power networks. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 29(3), 1092-1102.
Zhang et al. University of Tennessee Nuclear Plant Physical Open Description Zhang, F., et al. (2019). Multilayer data-driven cyber-attack detection system for industrial control systems based on network, system, and process data. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 15(7), 4362-4369.

Datasets

Name Scope Data Type Attacks Format Reference
4SICS (Link) Generic ICS Network Unknown pcap -
BATADAL (Link 1,Link 2) Water Distribution Physical Replay, MitM, Others csv, inp - Taormina, R., et al. (2018). Battle of the attack detection algorithms: Disclosing cyber attacks on water distribution networks. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 144(8), 04018048.
- Erba, A., et al. (2020). Constrained Concealment Attacks against Reconstruction-based Anomaly Detectors in Industrial Control Systems. In Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (pp. 480-495).
CLIK on PLCs! (Link) Generic ICS Net + Binary MitM, Injection, Other pcap, bin - Kalle, S., et al. (2019). Clik on plcs! attacking control logic with decompilation and virtual plc. In Binary Analysis Research (BAR) Workshop, Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS).
Control-logic-attack-datasets (Link) Generic ICS Network Injection, Others pcap Yoo, H., & Ahmed, I. (2019). Control logic injection attacks on industrial control systems. In IFIP International Conference on ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection.
D1: Power System Datasets (Link) Power System Phy + logs Injection, Others csv, arff -
D2: Gas Pipeline Datasets (Link) Gas Pipeline Network Injection csv Beaver, J. M., Borges-Hink, R. C., & Buckner, M. A. (2013). An evaluation of machine learning methods to detect malicious SCADA communications. In 2013 12th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (Vol. 2, pp. 54-59). IEEE.
D3b: Water Storage Tank (Link) Water Storage Tank Network Reconnaissance, Injection, DoS arff Morris, T., & Gao, W. (2014). Industrial control system traffic data sets for intrusion detection research. In International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection (pp. 65-78). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
D4: New Gas Pipeline (Link) Gas Pipeline Network MitM, Injection, Others arff Morris, T. H., et al. (2015). Industrial control system simulation and data logging for intrusion detection system research. 7th annual southeastern cyber security summit, 3-4.
D5: Energy Manag. S. D. (Link) Energy Management Logs No attacks csv -
Electra Modbus (Link) Power System Network Reconnaissance, Injection, Replay csv Gómez, Á. et al. (2019). On the generation of anomaly detection datasets in industrial control systems. IEEE Access, 7, 177460-177473.
Electra S7Comm (Link) Power System Network Reconnaissance, Injection, Replay csv Gómez, Á. L. P., et al. (2019). On the generation of anomaly detection datasets in industrial control systems. IEEE Access, 7, 177460-177473.
EPIC Dataset (Link) Generic ICS Phy + Net No attacks pcap, csv Adepu, S., et al. (2018). Epic: An electric power testbed for research and training in cyber physical systems security. In Computer Security (pp. 37-52). Springer, Cham.
HAI Dataset (Link) Industrial Physical Replay, MitM csv Choi, S., et al. (2020). POSTER: Expanding a Programmable CPS Testbed for Network Attack Analysis. In Proceedings of the 15th ACM Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security (pp. 928-930).
HVAC_Traces (Link) HVAC Network No attacks pcap Ndonda, G. K., & Sadre, R. (2019). A Public Network Trace of a Control and Automation System. arXiv preprint arXiv:1908.02118.
Lemay Covert (Link) Breakers Controller Network Covert Channel pcap, csv Lemay, A., & Fernandez, J. M. (2016). Providing {SCADA} network data sets for intrusion detection research. In 9th Workshop on Cyber Security Experimentation and Test ({CSET} 16).
Lemay SCADA (Link) Breakers Controller Network Reconnaissance, Injection, Others pcap, csv Lemay, A., & Fernandez, J. M. (2016). Providing {SCADA} network data sets for intrusion detection research. In 9th Workshop on Cyber Security Experimentation and Test ({CSET} 16).
Modbus SCADA #1 (Link) Liquid Pump Network MitM, DoS pcap Frazão, I., et al. (2018). Denial of service attacks: detecting the frailties of machine learning algorithms in the classification process. In International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (pp. 230-235). Springer, Cham.
QUT_S7Comm (Link) Mining Refinery Net + logs MitM csv, log, pcap Rodofile, N. R., et al. (2017). Process control cyber-attacks and labelled datasets on S7Comm critical infrastructure. In Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy (pp. 452-459). Springer, Cham.
S4x15 ICS (Link) Generic ICS Network Unknown pcap -
SWaT Dataset (Link) Water Treatment Phy + Net Injection, Others pcap, csv, xlsx Goh, J., et al. (2016). A dataset to support research in the design of secure water treatment systems. In International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (pp. 88-99). Springer, Cham.
WADI Dataset (Link) Water Distribution Physical MitM csv Ahmed, C. M., et al. (2017). WADI: a water distribution testbed for research in the design of secure cyber physical systems. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Water Networks (pp. 25-28).
CyberCity Dataset (Link) City Network Injection, MitM, DoS, Reconnaissan, Other pcap Hink, R. C. B., et al. (2016, January). Characterization of cyberattacks aimed at integrated industrial control and enterprise systems: a case study. In 2016 IEEE 17th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE) (pp. 149-156). IEEE.
WUSTL-IIOT-2018 (Link) Water Control Phy + Net Others csv Teixeira, M. A., et al. (2018). SCADA system testbed for cybersecurity research using machine learning approach. Future Internet, 10(8), 76.
QUT_DNP3 (Link) Power Grid Phy + Net Reconnaissan, Replay, MitM, Injection, Other pcap, log Rodofile, N. R. (2018). Generating attacks and labelling attack datasets for industrial control intrusion detection systems (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
QUT_S7_Myers (Link) Generic ICS Phy + Net Injection, MitM pcap, csv, xlsx Myers, D., Suriadi, S., Radke, K., & Foo, E. (2018). Anomaly detection for industrial control systems using process mining. Computers & Security, 78, 103-125.


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Reference/Publication

Pre-Print available at the following link: https://arxiv.org/abs/2102.05631

Update Request

Do you think we did not consider a testbed or a dataset? Or a new one has been created?

For any request, please contact: turrin@math.unipd.it

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